NMV 132
NMV 387
NMV 752
NMV 1003
NMV 1022
NMV 1078
NMV 1143
NMV 1400

NMV 124
Index: Ilgdz, Kur (Centenarians, Kurzeme - West part of Latvia)
Age at Time of Interview: 102
Year of Birth: 1898
Country of Birth: Latvia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Latvian
Religion: Lutheran
Education: Elementary, four grades in Pope's, Ance's schools, Elementary, Agricultural school in Skriveri

Content and themes: The author has witnessed both World Wars and both declarations of Latvia's independence. She has met people of diverse ethnic backgrounds who have lived or simply traveled through Latvia. She describes the work of the Puze's glass factory as she recalls her childhood memories. She describes the relationship between the children of various nationalities. Characterizes the nature and habits of the Swedish lords. World War II and her impressions of the German soldiers in Puze. She completed just a few classes of elementary school, but her ability to speak Russian and German, she says, helped her retain her self-esteem when faced by complex situations. The interview takes place in the "Ventina" dialect.

NMV 132
Index: LatA (Latvians in Russia)
Age at Time of Interview: 68
Year of Birth: 1925
Country of Birth: Russia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Latvian
Education: Elementary school in Archangelesk, Russia.

Content and themes: The author focuses on her childhood memories and youth in Bashkir and adapting to life in Latvia. Much of her story is about her family members and their fates. Her life reveals dfficulties living in the Soviet period.

NMV 387/1-2
Index: Repr (Repressions)
Gender: male
Age: 64
Date of Birth: 1932
Country of Birth: Latvia
Nationality/ethnicity: Latvian
Religion: Lutheran Education: Kuldiga High School
Employment/Profession: Agricultural Special
Characteristics of Experience: Life in Konini villages

Content and themes: Memories about mother, Alise Penike, who was a member of the influential Koninu family (Her father's brother was a general in the Army of the Republic of Latvia, Martins Penikis.) Her marriage to someone outside the village - contrary to tradition and the wishes of her parents. The destruction of her father's home, "Sikaleisi": the handing out of land to the landless. High taxes. The arrest of his father for failing to pay taxes. The deportation of his mother with her three children to Omsk in 1949. The affect of occupation on school life - after the arrival of the Soviet his teacher cut out pictures of the Latvian flag from their reading books. In the German period, the school became a headquarters for the army. School childrens walked home from school so, in the case of deportation, they would not lose their family. Forced relocation to Siberia and work in Siberia. At the end of this period, education and work helped to raise their self-esteem. This was followed by insecurity -with no established job nor residence in Latvia. Work at land-reclamation work which was well-paid, but also see how everyone around him drank too much. At the end of the koholz period, she and her brother shared in privatization and acquired property. In the end, he remembers an offer by the Cheka to work for them. He refused this offer, but remember someone else could not stand the pressure by the Cheka and hanged himself in the Koninu forest.

NMV 752/1-3
Index: LatR (Latvians in West)
Age at Time of Interview: 80
Year of Birth: 1918
Country of Birth: Latvia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Latvian
Religion: Lutheran
Education: Elementary, Agricultural school in Skriveri
Employment/Profession: Journalism
Unique experience: Founding of book collection/library in United States
Place of Interview: Kalamazoo, USA

Content and themes: Lifestory told in chronological order, in which community work is in first place. Service in the Army of the Republic of Latvia. The beginning of the first Soviet Occupation. He remembers the deportation of June 14 and those deported. An account of the formation of the Kureliesi movement [ resistance movement against Nazi at the II WW in Latvia]. Arrest of Kureliesi and imprisonment in Ventspils prison. Transferred to Gdansk, Poland to Torn, Germany. Life in the barracks, digging of ditches. An account of participation in the community life in the DP camp and establishing social relationships in Germany. Arrival in Kalamazoo, search for employment and place to live. Sons' and daughter's lives in the United States, adaptation. Raising his grandchildren as Latvians. Thoughts about return the possibility to return to Latvia for both himself and his children. The foundation of a book collection at the Latvian School, Garezers, book shipments to Latvia, Lauberi. The establishment of a book foundation in Kalamazoo Latvian Center. The second half of his life concerned family and childraising issues.

NMV 1003/1-2
Index: Ebr (Jewish)
Age at time of interview: 77
Year of Birth: 1922
Country of Birth: Latvia
Nationality/ethnicity: Jewish
Education: Elementary School in Viesite, Jekabpils Gymnasium

Content and themes: The author recalls how his family fled to Russia at the beginning of World War II, and thus saved their themselves, even though his father then dies there of starvation. He recalls Jewish life in interwar Latvia--schools, religion, traditions. He has heard from others how the wealthy Jews of Viesite were murdered in World War II. He married a Latvian and misses the Jewish traditions, language. He characterizes different nationalities. In the Soviet period he had an important position, but now he has a small pension and feels poverty. He compares interwar Latvia with today, where there is much poverty.

NMV 1011/1
Index: Ukr, Se (Ukrainian, Selija - Middle part of Latvia)
Age at time of interview: 49
Year of Birth: 1951
Country of Birth: Ukraine
Nationality/ethnicity: Ukrainian
Religion: Orthodox
Education: Ukrainian secondary school

Content and themes: Even though the interviewee has difficulty expressing himself in Latvian, the interview takes place in Latvian. He recalls that he was persuaded by friends to come to Latvia to find work. he met his future wife, married, and did not return to Ukraine. He is not the only Ukrainian who married a Latvian and stayed. He recalls his life in Aizkarpat, Ukraine. At one time he was interested in religious studies and attending a seminary. He has now worked in Latvia twenty-five years, understands Latvian and notes the differences between Latvians and Ukrainians. His wife also speaks Ukrainian, and their children speak three languages - Latvian, Russian, and Ukrainian.They usually spent their summers in Ukraine. He thinks that, on the one hand, being a non-citizen in Latvia is advantageous for him--he does not have to pay for expensive travel visas--but on the other hand, it is disadvantageous because he does not have the right to vote. He describes his property. He does not believe that it is possible to provide for children with farming.

NMV 1022/1-3
Index: Karš, Kr (War, Russian)
Age at Time of Interview: 71
Year of Birth: 1928
Country of Birth: Russia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Russian
Education: Pedagogical-Technical Institute in Opocka, Pedagogical Institute in Velikije Luki

Content and themes: The author recalls World War II, hiding in the forest, and clashes between the partisans and Germans. She was taken to a camp "Svary" in Belorussia, but later escaped from the Germans. After the war she and her family decide to return to Russia. Then she later returns to Latvia to find work, education. Discusses interethnic relations. Evaluates the citizen-non-citizen situation in Latvia after the renewal of independence.  

NMV 1078/1
Index: Repr, Kr (Repressions, Russian)
Age at Time of Interview: 74
Year of Birth: 1926
Country of Birth: Russia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Russian
Education: Eight year Voskresensk Elementary School

Content and themes: The author was born in Russia. World War II begins, which she spends in various labor camps in Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Germany...She returns to find her home destroyed and must start her life over. Looking for work, she meets and falls in love with a Latvian boy and has now lived on Latvia's border for fifty years. She reflects on life's paradoxes; how she, a woman supposedly destined to live a quiet life in the country, instead walks across half of Europe, learning many languages on the way--German, Latvian, Polish, Lithuanian...She considers herself Orthodox, but often attends Catholic church and receives communion from a Lutheran pastor. She reflects on life today. The interview takes place in a home for the elderly. The interviewee does not have Latvian citizenship. The interview takes place in Latvian.

NMV 1143/1-2
Index: Repr, Sē (Repressions, Selija - Middle part of Latvia)
Age at Time of Interview: 86
Year of Birth: 1914
Country of Birth: Latvia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Latvian
Religion: Lutheran
Education: Birzi two-class agricultural school

Content and themes: A complex story, which begins with the author's parents. His father deserts the Russian Army in World War I. His mother dies. The author served in the army and then enlisted in the work police (darba policija) In the interwar years, he was active in Garsene's cultural life, Aizsargi. He worked as the chief of police. Soviet troops enter in 1940, the author is arrested and sentenced to hard labor. He spends sixteen years in Vorkut. The author describes police work, militia, Soviet secret police, Nazi German forces, life in Vorkut.

NMV 1400/1-2
Index: Ilgdz (Centenarians)
Age at Time of Interview: 90
Year of Birth: 1911
Cauntry of Birth: Russia
Nationality/Ethnicity: Russian
Education: Three year elementary school in Lithuania

Content and themes: The author was baptized as a Catholic, but confirmed in a Lutheran church. A story of difficult childhood. She and her mother went to Riga when the author was four years old. Life in Riga was difficult, and her mother turned to stealing to provide. The author's childhood as a shepherd. War and end of World War II. She recalls contacts with Russian soldiers, especially Russian aviator dances. She reflects on the roles of dreams.